Through Lesson IV.
To be reviewed daily and before each lesson. New material in blue.
Alphabet and Punctuation |
Basic Accent Rules |
Proclitics and Enclitics |
Noun Basics |
Alphabet and Punctuation
Αα Ββ Γγ Δδ Εε Ζζ Ηη Θθ Ιι Κκ Λλ Μμ
Νν Ξξ Οο Ππ Ρρ Σσς Ττ Υυ Φφ Χχ Ψψ Ωω
* Note: Other than in a few places in these notes, there are no long marks in my vocabulary, notes, or answers; they are too difficult for me to reproduce faithfully, me paenitet.
- The short vowels are α, ε, ι, ο, υ.
- Long vowels are ᾱ, η, ῑ, ω, ῡ.*
- The diphthongs are αι, αυ, ει, ευ, οι, ου, ηυ, υι.
- Double Consonants: ξ, ψ
γ-nasal; liquids: λ, μ, ν, ρ;
||Labial || or π-mutes
||Palatal || or κ-mutes
||Dental, Lngual || or τ-mutes
- A word beginning with a vowel, diphthong, or the letter ρ will have a breathing mark.
- A rough breathing adds an "h" sound: ἑν (pronounced "hen," which means one)
- A smooth breathing has no effect on pronunciation: ἐν (pronounced "en," which means in)
- Breathing marks go on the second vowel in a diphthong ( υἱός, "hwee-OS," son).
- Breathing marks are tucked under circumflex accents ( ὧδε, "HO-de," thus).
- Greek commas and periods are used just as in English.
- Greek colon is a dot above the line (·), used like the English colon or semicolon.
- The Greek question mark is the English semicolon (;).
- A short final vowel may be dropped when the next word begins with a vowel:
ἐπὶ αὐτόν -> ἐπ' αὐτόν
- Often added to words ending in -σι and to all verbs of third person ending in -ε,
when the next word begins with a vowel.
- Also added at the end of a sentence.
- A Greek word has as many syllables as it has separate vowels or diphthongs.
- A syllable is long by nature when it contains a long vowel or diphthong.
- Single and combined consonants are usually placed at the beginning of a syllable.
- Last three syllables are called: antepenult, penult, and ultima. (mnemonic: ante-pen-ultima)
Basic Accent Rules
Acute ( ʹ )
- Final αι and οι are considered short when determining accent (except in the optative mood and in the adverb οἴκοι, "at home").
Circumflex ( ~ )
- Stands on one of the last three syllables
- Cannot stand on antepenult if last syllable is long or ends in ξ or ψ. (The acute is "pulled" onto the penult by a long ultima.)
- If ultima is long, a penult accent must be acute.
Grave ( ` )
- Stands on one of the last two syllables
- Only on long syllables
- Only on penult if ultima is short
- Long, accented ultimas in the genitive and the dative of all numbers take the circumflex.
- The genitive plurals of all A-Declension nouns always have the circumflex on the last syllable.
- Only on the last syllable
- An oxytone (a word with an accent on its final syllable) changes its accent to grave before other words in the same sentence.
- A proclitic is an unaccented, monosyllable word, closely attached to the following word.
- An enclitic throws its accent back onto the preceeding word, and is pronounced as if it were a part of it.
- Accents on nouns are persistent; id est, they try to hold their nominative position unless a rule forces a change to the next syllable.
Proclitics and Enclitics to Date
Cases and Default Meanings
- Five cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative
- Three numbers: singular, dual, plural
- Three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter
- Three declensions: 1st or A-declension, 2nd or O-Declension, 3rd or Consonant Declension
- nominative: subject of the sentence or clause
- genitive: possessive case
- dative: indirect object
- accusative: direct object
- vocative: used for direct address
- Names of males, rivers, winds, and months (things that run, flow, or change) are usually masculine.
- Names of females, countries, towns, trees, and islands (solid, earthy, or stationary things) and nouns denoting qualities or conditions are usually feminine.
- Feminine nouns of the A-Declension end in ᾱ, η, or α.
- Masculine nouns of the A-Declension end in ᾱς or ης.
- Feminines generally end in ᾱ if ε, ι, or ρ precedes the ending,
- otherwise they usually end in η.
- Adjectives must agree with their nouns in case, gender, and number.
- Fem 1st Declension, ᾱ: χώρα, country
and στρατιά, army (#38, pg 8 and #739, pg 220).
- Feminine, long alpha form of the adjective: ἀξία, worthy (#38, pg 8 and #750, pg 226).
- Feminine form of the article: ἡ, the (#38, pg 8 and #758, pg 234).
- Fem 1st Declension, η: κώμη, village
and σκηνή, tent (#44, pg 10 and #739, pg 220).
- Feminine, eta form of the adjective: καλή, fine and ἀγαθή, good (#44, pg 10 and #750, pg 226).
With the Dative
- ἐν -- in.